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By William Croft

1. advent; 2. Typological category; three. Implicational universals and competing motivations; four. Grammatical different types: typological markedness; five. Grammatical hierarchies and the semantic map version; 6. Prototypes and the interplay of typological styles; 7. Syntactic argumentation and syntactic constitution in typology; eight. Diachronic typology; nine. Typology as an method of language.

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In one pattern, the unattested types are in the same row or column (it does not matter whether it is a row or a column, since a table can always be inverted). ; The unattested types in the second row are accounted for by the unrestricted universal, 'All languages have vowels,' while the two columns simply note that some languages have uvular consonants and some languages do not. This does not indicate any relationship or dependency between the presence or absence of uvular consonants and the presence of vowels, since all languages have vowels anyway.

This pattern is also derivable directly from the tetrachoric table, though it is less obviously manifested in the implicational universal. A word order on one parameter is harmonic with an order on the cross-cutting parameter if it occurs only with that other order. ' In a biconditional universal, Prep is harmonic with NG and vice versa, and Post is harmonic with GN and vice versa. However, there is no dominant order in a biconditional universal, since each word order type occurs with only one word order type on the other parameter.

1 Dominance AN ::> ~(SOV & NG) AN ::> ~VSO AN::> DemN AN::> NumN The generalization that covers these universals is that all implicational universals whose implicatum involves the order of noun and adjective will have the order NA as the implicatum (and a complementary statement for the contrapositives Greenberg calls this pattern dominance (Greenberg 1966a:97): the dominant order is the one that always occurs in the implicatum. To say that some word order D is dominant is to say that implicational universals involving D will be of the form X :J D (or the contrapositive ~D:J ~ X), and never of the form X :J '" D (or D :J '" X).

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