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By David Rifkind

This publication offers the 24 discoveries in infectious ailments that experience merited Nobel Prize acceptance because the inception of the awards in 1901. Grouped in accordance with organic teams instead of chronology, every one discovery contains a biographical comic strip of the laureate(s), an outline of the study, and a precis of the present prestige of the sector. moreover, attention is given to the relevance of the study at the basic box of biology and medication.

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Streptomycin 49 The question was explored in the following experiment. One hundred tubes of streptomycin-free broth were inoculated with bacteria and incubated simultaneously. Each of these cultures was then transferred individually to streptomycin-containing agar plates and incubated, and the streptomycin-resistant colonies were counted. The plates showed a wide variation in the number of colonies that appeared, ranging from none to hundreds. Logically, if streptomycin were inducing resistance then all of the plates would have had approximately the same number of resistant colonies.

However, they still have specific indications, especially in combination with other inhibitors of microbial metabolism. Furthermore, the search to understand the mechanism of action of antibiotics presaged the important studies of Hitchings and Elion (Chapter 7), who refined and extended this approach to the development of more advanced antimicrobial agents. 5 PENICILLIN In the fields of observation chance favors only the prepared mind. (LOUIS PASTEUR, 1822–1895) ALEXANDER FLEMING, ERNEST CHAIN AND HOWARD FLOREY The 1945 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine was shared among Alexander Fleming, Ernest Chain and Howard Florey for their discovery of penicillin and for devising methods for purification and production of the antibiotic for clinical use.

Part B ANTIMICROBIALS The antimicrobials include the chemotherapeutic agents, which are synthesized in the laboratory, and the antibiotics, which are products of microorganisms or plants. Antimicrobials are currently available to treat diseases caused by each of the four major classes of infectious agents: viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. The landmarks in the development and application of antimicrobial agents include the application in the late seventeenth century of cinchona tree bark to treat malaria, the development of sulfas in 1936 and the discovery of penicillin in 1942 to treat bacterial infections, and finally the synthesis of acyclovir in 1970 to treat viral infections.

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