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By Dennis Ager

This article examines ecu languages and the groups utilizing them, from differing issues of view. the quantity examines: the linguistic type of the language households utilized in Europe and strains how they grew to become general languages; and investigates language shift and the political, social and fiscal elements that reason groups to undertake a brand new language. Many have decreed that one language instead of one other might be reliable, and feature distinctive tasks in shaping the language selected: the query of conserving local and minority languages in the State's borders is addressed as regards to this. As a few languages have unfold over the total globe, migration inside (and from with no) Europe leads the writer to think about the price of language as an emblem of identification and the chance of voluntary multilingualism, or language peace, in Europe. The ebook exhibits that difficulties communique poses can't be divorced from the belief of overseas communique.

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Example text

Is there real imposition of language requirements, is there effective discrimination or protection, or is the law merely a symbolic declaration?  Thirdly, the 'magyarisation' process by which the civil service operated in Magyar and, in effect, recruited and promoted only Magyar speakers, discriminated against, for example, Slovak speakers. French.  The symbolic declaration was given substance by a law of 1994, replacing one passed in 1975, but found to be ineffectual in safeguarding French, particularly in preventing the inflow of English words and expressions.

For the aristocracy, of course, the situation was different, and there are many references to the 'gasconisms' new courtiers had to lose quickly if they wished to gain political favour from the Royal Court.  The political imperative was outlined in the Abbé Grégoire's report of 1794 on the 'necessity and means for destroying dialects and generalising the use of French', and also in Barère's speeches in Parliament when he condemned 'federalism and superstition' in those speaking Breton; 'emigration and hatred of the Republic' in speakers of German; 'the counterrevolution' in those using Italian and 'fanaticism' in speakers of Basque.

Various languages used by the aristocracy of the regimes under which Hungarians have lived.  Protestantism raised the status of German; Catholicism that of Latin, and both languages have provided new vocabulary from which Hungarian has borrowed.  The language rarely achieved political prestige, and its demise was even predicted in 1791.  Hungary, at this time, could be said to have become a fairly compact State with centralist traditions, favouring the assimilation of other groups.  The Hungarian State was reduced to the areas where Magyar was in the majority (it lost two­thirds of its pre­war territory): Croatia joined Serbia, Transylvania joined Romania and Slovakian regions were reallocated to Czecho­Slovakia.

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