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Gait & Posture 4(3):209–211 Sutherland D H, Olshen R A, Cooper L, Woo S 1980 The development of mature gait. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 62A:336–353 Sutherland D H, Olshen R A, Biden E N, Wyatt M P 1988 The development of mature walking. J B Lippincott, Philadelphia Terrier P, Ladetto Q, Merminod B, Schutz Y 2000 Highprecision satellite positioning system as a new tool to study the biomechanics of human locomotion. Journal of Biomechanics 33(12):1717–1722 Todd F N, Lamoreux L W, Skinner S R et al 1989 Variations in the gait of normal children.

Pelvic tilt and trunk flexion. 1 Which of the following is a body segment? (a) Foot (b) Ankle (c) Knee (d) Hip In order to measure absolute motion of body segments, measurements must be taken with respect to a fixed global reference system. There are basically four ways to do this: ● Optical. Vicon Motion Systems (Oxford, UK), Motion Analysis Corp. , Waterloo, ON, Canada), B|T|S (Milan, Italy), SIMI Reality Motion Systems GmbH (Unterschleissheim, Germany), Ariel Dynamics, Inc. 5 Zebris ultrasonic motion analysis system, which utilizes the delay in sound transmission through air to triangulate the position of ultrasound emitting markers.

This strategy became popular because in the early days of 3D gait analysis (Sutherland 2002), the technology had difficulty tracking more than a few markers, and although the tracking ability of modern systems is much improved, these ‘minimal’ marker sets continue to be used in most laboratories. The most popular is variously called the Modified Helen Hayes (MHH), Vaughan, Newington, Kadaba, Davis, Gage, or Vicon Clinical Manager (VCM) model (Fig. 2). To see how it works, start at the pelvis. This is defined by markers attached over the right and left anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) and the spinous process of the second sacral vertebra (S2).

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