Download Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an by Karl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin PDF

By Karl S. Drlica, David S. Perlin

As pathogenic micro organism evolve, antibiotic resistance is spreading, compromising our skill to manage and deal with infectious illnesses. Antibiotic Resistance completely illuminates this important factor for healthcare execs, researchers, scholars, and policymakers. best investigators clarify what resistance is, the way it emerges, which human actions give a contribution, and the way to bolster our defenses.

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Extra info for Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis

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However, in Holland between 1989 and 2004, a new strain of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent, replaced the old one among children, and the number of whooping cough cases increased. 30 Perspective Pathogens have attacked humans throughout history. Before the middle of the twentieth century, we relied on our immune systems to survive those attacks. The unlucky and the weak died. Our immune systems were strengthened by improvements in diet, and the frequency of some pathogen attacks was reduced by sanitation and water purification.

Ehrlich’s young colleague, Sahachiro Hata, tested Ehrlich’s compound collection against Treponema pallidum, the syphilis bacterium. Compound number 606 miraculously cured syphilis, first in animals and then in humans. Compound 606 was the magic bullet Ehrlich sought, albeit for a different disease. The discovery was announced in 1909, and by 1910 compound 606 was available for clinical use. Compound 606, also called salvorsan, and a newer derivative (neosalvarsan) were accepted treatments for syphilis until 1945.

2. Strength: The stronger the association, the more likely it is causal. 3. Consistency: Results from different settings should be consistent. 4. Dose response: More exposure to the cause increases the risk of disease. 5. Plausibility: A theoretical basis should exist for proposing a relationship. 6. Consideration of alternatives: The association becomes stronger as alternatives are eliminated. 7. Experiment: Alteration of the disease by appropriate changes in conditions. 8. Specificity: A particular putative cause is associated with a specific event.

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