Download An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms by Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen PDF

By Frederic Sommers, George Englebretsen

This paintings introduces the topic of formal good judgment in terms of a process that's "like syllogistic logic". Its approach, like out of date, conventional syllogistic, is a "term logic". The authors' model of good judgment ("term-function logic", TFL) stocks with Aristotle's syllogistic the perception that the logical types of statements which are fascinated about inferences as premises or conclusions will be construed because the results of connecting pairs of phrases by way of a logical copula (functor). This perception contrasts markedly with that which informs ultra-modern usual formal good judgment ("modern predicate logic", MPL). The publication is meant as a device for the advent of TFL to the start pupil of common sense. it is usually a bankruptcy introducing ordinary MPL. There are a number of workout sections and a precis of the most ideas, legislation and ideas of TFL. For the philosophically orientated there are discussions of vital concerns on the intersections of semantics, metaphysics, epistemology and good judgment.

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Extra resources for An Invitation to Formal Reasoning: The Logic of Terms

Sample text

If 'T' is a term, then 1. 'T' expresses [T] or BEING T. If there are T -things then 2. 'T' denotes T things, 3. 'T' signifies , the attribute ofT-ness or being T, 4. [T] corresponds to . 5. [T] characterizes (is true of) some T thing If nothing is T, then 'T' is doubly vacuous because 16 An Invitation to Formal Reasoning 6. 'T' fails to denote aT thing. 7. 'T' fails to signify, (there being no such thing as ). ******************************************************************* Exercises: I.

3. 4. 5. 6. not a creature was stirring some mammals lay eggs. some birds do not fly. no bird is immortal II. Which of the following statements denote the world? 1. There are no elves. 2. Some citizens are not farmers. 3. All women are citizens. 4. Elvis lives. 5. The France is a republic. III. Which ofthe following is incorrect? 1. Any statement is a truth claim made with respect to a specific domain, called the domain of the claim (DC). 2. A statement's' signifies , only if is an existential characteristic of the DC of 's'.

That there are mermaids (The EXISTENCE OF MERMAIDS) is not a FACT. On the other hand; the NONEXISTENCE of MERMAIDS, that there are no mermaids, is a FACT or true proposition. The nonexistence of mermaids is a fact (lower case). This fact is a negative existential characteristic of the world. FACTS correspond to, are made true by, facts. 16. What Statements Denote Suppose I am at the zoo and say 'that elk keeps staring at me'. The nonvacuous term 'elk' signifies the characteristic of being an elk and it denotes something that has the characteristic signified.

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