Download An Introduction to English Phonology by April McMahon PDF
By April McMahon
This can be a brief, energetic, and obtainable advent to the sounds of recent English. Its emphasis on edition, with examples from British, American, New Zealand, and Singaporean English, make it appropriate for either local and non-native audio system. McMahon makes a speciality of the vowels and consonants, but additionally discusses syllables, rigidity, and the phonology of phrases and words. She introduces new instruments and terminology progressively, and discusses the incentive for key concepts.
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Additional info for An Introduction to English Phonology
First, we can distinguish consonants from vowels using the feature [±syllabic]; sounds which are [+syllabic] form the core, or nucleus, of a syllable, while [– syllabic] sounds form syllabic margins. Vowels are therefore [+syllabic], and all consonants [– syllabic], though some consonants (like English /m n l r/) may have [+syllabic] allophones in certain contexts. Second, the feature [±consonantal] distinguishes [+consonantal] oral stops, fricatives, nasals and ‘liquids’ (the cover term for /r/ and /l/ sounds), from [– consonantal] glides (like English /j/, /w/) and vowels.
Finally, the ‘tut-tut’ click sound [ ] is produced on a velaric airstream, which operates only ingressively. When you make [ ] you can feel that the back of your tongue is pressed against the roof of your mouth, stopping air from moving any further back; a little air is then drawn into the mouth further forward, and the closure with the tongue is released to make a click. Neither the glottalic nor the velaric airstreams provide airﬂow with the volume or controllability of the pulmonic system. 2 Voiced or voiceless?
All three may also be glottally reinforced at the ends of words. All three are unaspirated after /s/; and no other English phoneme has the same range of allophones, in the same environments. In feature terms, although /p/, /t/, /k/ differ in place of articulation, all three are obstruent consonants, and within this class, are [– voice, – nasal, – continuant]. A group of phonemes which show the same behaviour in the same contexts, and which share the same features, constitute a natural class. More formally, a natural class of phonemes can be identiﬁed using a smaller number of features than any individual member of that class.