Download Advances in Virus Research, Vol. 72 by Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin, Frederick A. Murphy PDF

By Karl Maramorosch, Aaron J. Shatkin, Frederick A. Murphy

Released on account that 1953, Advances in Virus learn covers a various variety of in-depth experiences supplying a important evaluation of the present box of virology. The effect issue for 2006 is 3.48 putting it seventh within the hugely aggressive classification of virology. * Contributions from major professionals * Informs and updates on all of the most modern advancements within the box

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However, the studies of Rudnick in Malaysia demonstrated that sylvatic serotypes probably utilize similar non-human primate hosts (see transmission cycles), which suggests that if the DENV serotypes evolved allopatrically and later expanded into overlapping regions, that occurred after their divergence had reached adequate levels of strain variation to allow maintenance through only limited cross-reactive immune protection. , 1999). Alternatively, emergence of distinct DENV lineages may have occurred sympatrically, which would have produced antigenically similar lineages with complete immunological cross-protection.

Our knowledge of the neutralization potential of sylvatic strains by prior immunity to endemic strains is limited and has not been examined by organized research. , 2008b) suggest that sylvatic DENV comes into regular contact with humans. Recent reports have also shown that the forest mosquito Ae. , 2003), which suggests that may act as a bridge vector for exchange of DENV between sylvatic and peridomestic habitats. Furthermore, since little or no change in vector infectivity accompanied 46 Nikos Vasilakis and Scott C.

However, TOT rates in Ae. , 1997). Interestingly, at least for Ae. , 2002) in the absence of any horizontal transmission from vertebrate blood meals, a notion initially suggested by Rosen 15 years earlier (Rosen, 1987). At face value this phenomenon suggests that mosquitoes can act as DENV reservoirs. Collectively, the data suggest that TOT may play a significant role in the maintenance of DENV in nature when unfavorable conditions limit horizontal transmission. Such conditions may include periods when low populations of susceptible non-immune vertebrate hosts cannot sustain horizontal transmission (interepidemic period), or when climatic conditions are unfavorable for mosquito activity (dry season), during which even very low transovarial transmission rates could preserve the virus.

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