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By Grant N. Marshall

Reviews that rigidity can produce myriad well-being results, and those results can show up themselves as signs and prerequisites just like those who veterans record.

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Additional info for A Review of the Scientific Literature As It Pertains to Gulf War Illnesses, Volume 4: Stress (Gulf War Illnesses Series)

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Numerous studies of primary care populations indicate high rates of bodily symptoms similar to those reported by CCEP and the VA Registry participants (Koch, 1975; Kroenke, 1989). , 1997). Even in community samples, somatic symptoms are common, with lifetime prevalence rates of 37 percent for joint pain, 31 percent for back pain, 25 percent for headache and 24 percent for fatigue (Kroenke and Price 1993). These studies are not fully comparable to the CCEP program, however, since Gulf War veterans tend to be younger and more likely to be male than are patient and community samples.

In all, we consulted more than 250 articles, books, and technical reports, including both theoretical and empirical analyses. The review spanned a range of topics, including the nature of stress and the stress process, the role of stress and other risk factors in contributing to poor health, the pathways by which stress is linked to poor health, and the types of illnesses and diseases associated with stress. With respect to the literature concerning stressors faced by personnel deployed to the Persian Gulf, we identified approximately 55 pertinent research articles, book chapters, and technical reports.

University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute), Ronald C. D. (Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School), David H. D. D. (School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles), and Kenneth B. D. (RAND). We thank David Persselin and Alan Shafer for their assistance in compiling data. Page xxiii Glossary BDIBeck Depression Inventory BSIBrief Symptom Inventory CAGEScreening Instrument used to assess alcohol disorder CESCombat Exposure Scale DISDiagnostic Interview Schedule DSM-III-RDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd Edition, Revised) GHQGeneral Health Questionnaire GSIGeneral Severity Index (of the SCL-90-R) HSCHealth Symptom Checklist IESImpact of Events Scale MISSMississippi Scale for Combat-Related Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder MISS-ODSMississippi modified for ODS MMPI-2Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ODSOperation Desert Storm ODS-SESOperation Desert Storm Stress Exposure Scale PCL-MILPTSD Symptom ChecklistMilitary Version PGWPersian Gulf War PRIME-MDPrimary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders PTSDPosttraumatic stress disorder SCIDStructured Clinical Interview for DSM-III Disorders SCL-90-RHopkins Symptoms Checklist (Revised version) SF-36Short Form 36-Item Health Questionnaire SSQRSocial Support Questionnaire STAIState-Trait Anxiety Inventory STASState-Trait Anger Scale WOCWays of Coping Scale Page 1 Chapter One Introduction This report summarizes the existing scientific literature on the health effects of stress.

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