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By Alfred Grafe

By their powers of cause scientists may be capable of extract from nature the solutions to their questions. From: Critique of natural cause, 1781 Immanuel Kant (1724-1804), German thinker background is a composite of reports. The historical past of the organic disciplines has been written through all those that opened the gates of recent wisdom by way of producing principles and the experiments to aid them. past authors have tried a number of methods to the background of virology, as is mirrored within the various books and book-series issuing from the publishing homes. This quantity is an try out at a compre­ hensive but compact survey of virology, which has intended penetrating the inflexible limits of the separate disciplines of biology within which virologists have labored. scripting this heritage of experimental virology was once quite a look for the origins and for very important signposts to painting the broad scope of the data attained so far. This was once performed in com­ plete know-how of the truth that each presentation relies seriously upon the point of view of the observer, and of necessity communi­ cates just a a part of the entire. the current medical tale hopes to recount crucial wisdom completed in this prior century - the 1st century of the intriguing advancements in virology.

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The other was the effect of bacterial toxins. A list of 18 infectious diseases whose etiology had already been established in the 19th century, demonstrates the immensity of bacteriological research at the world's leading microbiological institutes at that time. However, more and more cases accumulated in which the infectious disease was characterized but the causative agent was not identified, despite imaginative and carefully executed experiments. This chapter will attempt to recount how the early failures to identify "bacteria" in effect paved the way to experimental virology.

5 African Horse Sickness Since the close of the 19th century, there had been reports of a fatal disease found extensively in the horse and mule of South Africa. When the disease broke out in Natal in 1887, the English government commissioned Nunn with the first scientific investigation, and other researchers also became interested in the disease. Their reports appeared in various journals between 1892 and 1895 but received little public attention until the English veterinarian M'Fadyean published his research findings and reported them to the Royal Veterinary College, London in 1900.

The multiplicity of specific bacterial forms and functions was studied with reference to diverse forms of disease. The scope of differing sizes from the endospore to the spirochete was investigated. These factors, plus the obligation to validly prove one's theories, finally led to higher standards of laboratory methods, techniques and equipment. Textbooks on microbiology and hygiene, available in several languages, presented guidelines using liquid or solid substrates suitable for cultivating distinct forms of bacteria.

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